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DRAINS

Drainage refers to the natural or artificial removal of water from an area.   Drains provide the exit point for wastewater or water that is to be re-circulated.  In recirculation, unwanted water is either diverted to a more useful area, funneled into a container, or run into the sewers as waste.

In construction, the civil engineer or site engineer is responsible for drainage.  Working with the architects, planners, quantity surveyors and other construction crew, they map out all the roads, street gutters, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in the construction plans.  At the worksite, they determine all the necessary levels for each of the drainage factors.  Most places have laws and regulations that govern drainage and to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage on his land.  Many agricultural soils need drainage to improve production or to manage water supply.

There are also drainage systems for fountains or swimming pools, where water passes through the pipes to the re-circulating pumping machine.  For safety reasons, multiple drains are legally required in residential pools and public fountains to help reduce the dangers of pipe entubement and flume debunkment.  Since children often play in public fountains, the use of multiple drains is a mandatory safety feature regardless of whether or not it is intended for use as an aquatic play feature.  Sometimes, however, vandals can break into drains at night and remove the drain covers; this can make drains very dangerous.

Drainage systems
Drains take sewage (from toilets, bathrooms and kitchens) and surface water (rain, runoffs from gardens) away from your property.  Lateral drains are part of the drainage system outside of your property boundary.  Sewers are shared drains that take sewage and wastewater away from an area.

Homeowners and building owners are responsible for drains up to their property line.  They are also responsible for private sewers connected to a private pumping station and treatment facility, or those that carry water directly to a watercourse or into the ground.  These systems may be covered by home or property insurance for any damage.  Water and sewerage companies are responsible for public sewers, as well as private sewers and lateral drains that connect to the public sewer.

Blocked drains
Waste water is transferred to the waste and sewage removal system via the sewage drain system.  This system consists of large piping, water traps, and vents that prevent toxic gases from entering the living spaces.

The first sign that a drain is blocked is when waste or wastewater does not go away quickly (when a toilet is flushed, when sinks or shower stalls become clogged, when manholes and gullies overflow their gratings).  Drains may be blocked by inappropriate substances, soil particles (sedimentation) or

construction debris getting into the pipes.  Aside from a blockage, a possible cause of the problem is damaged or deteriorated pipes and joints.

To help prevent blocked or damaged drains, dispose of waste properly.  When inappropriate substances are flushed down the drains, this can cause clogging and nuisance smells.  Examples of materials that must not be allowed to get into the drain are fats, oils and greases, paints and solvents, disposable nappies and wipes, sanitary products, condoms, cotton wool, bandages and dressings.

Pouring foul matter into the surface water drain will cause pollution and this is against the law.  Keep vegetation away from drains and sewers as much as possible.  As a general rule, drains and sewers that are less than a meter deep must be at least three meters away from any trees.

For more answers to your questions about drains, contact Freedom Restoration at 410-451-7110 or click here.

 

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drainage
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drain_(plumbing)
http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/homeandcommunity/whereyoulive/streetcleaninglitterandillegaldumping/dg_10026174
http://www.channel4.com/4homes/build-renovate/structural-problems/solving-drain-sewer-problems
http://findlaw.co.uk/law/government/public_services/8933.html

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